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 Marine Corps Combat Doctrine

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Tiger Teeth

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PostSubject: Marine Corps Combat Doctrine   Tue Jan 03, 2012 4:29 pm

Another great find from globalsecurity.org
This is all about Marine Corps combat doctrine. A great insight into the theory of combat strategy. Every single word is founded in a profound knowledge of what works and what doesn't. None of it is opinion.
Especially interesting segments are the parts labeled Offensive, Mass, Economy of Force, Security, Surprise and Simplicity. The Chapters seem to be labeled oddly, so I can't tell you exactly where in the document they are. But on my comp, if I start from the top and push Page Down 31 times, it'll land at the top of the first one. The rest are grouped pretty closely. Or you can just read the entire thing. Wink

Here it is.
Ground Combat Operations
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PostSubject: Re: Marine Corps Combat Doctrine   Tue Jan 03, 2012 10:29 pm

I went and looked them up and have them reformatted below with a couple short others I think are also important adds. This is great stuff, I’m gunna go ahead and read it through a few more times my self.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fundamentals of Ground Combat
The fundamentals, of ground combat are general rules evolved from
logical and time-proven application of the principles of war to both
offensive and defensive. combat.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Offensive
The offense alone brings victory; the defense can only avoid defeat.
In taking the offensive, an attacker seizes, retains, and exploits the
initiative and maintains freedom of action. The offense allows the
commander to impose his will on the enemy, to determine the
course of the battle, and to exploit enemy weaknesses. A defensive
posture . should be only a temporary expedient until the means are
available, to resume the offensive, Even in the conduct of a defense,
the commander seeks every opportunity to seize the initiative by offensive
action.
Offensive action can help the commander dictate the tempo of an
operation. Our goal is to deprive the enemy of opportunities relevant
to his operational objectives by putting him on a reactive footing.
The GCE commander can accomplish this through swift
decision making coupled with rapid execution on the battlefield.
The faster we can operate, the less time the enemy has to react to
our actions and to plan actions of his own or according to General
Patton, ". . . when we are attacking, the enemy has to parry, while,
when we are defending or preparing to attack, he can attack us."


Offensive action is not discouraged based on enemy advantages in
troops and resources. Defensive operations against a vastly superior
foe may only delay inevitable defeat. General Lee's attack at
Chancellorsville and Rommel 's operations in North Africa against
numerically greater and better equipped armies illustrate the value
of the offense at every opportunity.

------------------------------------------------------
"I was too weak to defend, so I attacked."
—General Robert E. Lee,
Chancellorsvilte, 1863
------------------------------------------------------


__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Mass
Combat power must be concentrated at the decisive place and time
to achieve decisive results. Mass in ancient times meant sheer
weight of numbers at a critical point. Today, mass means potential
strength at the critical point or the ability to have it there before the
enemy. Proper application of the principle of mass may achieve decisive
local superiority for a numerically inferior force. Contributors
to achieving mass include—
• Leadership.
• Troop strength.
• Tactical dispositions.
• Skillful use of fires.
• Combat support and CSS.
• Discipline, morale, and resolution.
• C2

------------------------------------------------------
'The principles of war could, for brevity, be
condensed into a single word—concentration."
—B. H. Liddell Hart
------------------------------------------------------

The commander's attempt to mass is embodied in his main effort.
The main effort is designed to successfully attack an enemy vulnerability
or critical vulnerability. The main effort is a subordinate
unit specifically designated by the commander that is given the preponderance
of combat power and support to ensure success. All
units and organizations must support the main effort. When the
GCE is designated the main effort of the MAGTF, it must receive
the support necessary for success. Though the MAGTF commander
makes the ultimate decision regarding task organization of the force,
the GCE commander must have the fortitude to ask for additional
forces when the resources provided are inadequate to conduct the
tasks assigned. This is important to the understanding of main effort,
as the main effort must accomplish the mission assigned regardless
of supporting effort failures.
The decision to concentrate a, main effort requires strict economy
and the acceptance of risk elsewhere. Due to the. lethality of modern
weapons, forces must be massed quickly and unexpectedly from
dispersed formations and dispersed again after accomplishment of
the mission. The commander, concentrates forces and masses fires
to exploit enemy weakness or where terrain offers the best opportunity
to. make maximum use of fire and maneuver. At the decisive
place and time, the commander commits his reserve to generate the
greatest combat power.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Economy of Force
Economy of force is the reciprocal of the principle of mass. This
principle may be defined as the conservation of men and material in
order that the maximum of fighting means will be. available at the
decisive time and place. The commander allocates the minimum essential
combat power to exert pressure in secondary efforts and concentrates
his greatest strength at the decisive point. This requires
the acceptance .of prudent risks in secondary' areas to achieve superiority
at the decisive place. Supporting efforts must directly support
the main effort. Thus, forces not made available to the main effort are
justifiable only when they divert superior enemy combat power
from the decisive action or when they debilitate the enemy commander's
decision making ability.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Unity of Command
Unity of command is the vesting of a single commander with the
requisite authority to direct and coordinate the actions of all forces
employed toward a common objective. Unity of command obtains
the unity of effort that is essential to the decisive application of all
available combat power. Subordinates are then focused on attaining
the overall objectives as communicated from a single commander.
In turn this fosters freedom of action, decentralized control, and
initiative.

------------------------------------------------------
"Nothing in war is so important as an undivided
command."

—Napoleon
------------------------------------------------------

Clearly stated intent and trust in subordinates by the commander are
key to initiative and decentralized control. The commander's intent
provides the force with an understanding of what the commander
wants to do to the enemy and the desired end state, it is absolutely
essential to unity of effort. Trust in subordinates is embodied in
mission tactics. Mission tactics are initiated with mission-type orders..
Mission orders are the assignment of missions with a clear
task and purpose to a subordinate without dictating how to accomplish it.
Essential to maintaining unity is identification of the focus of effort.
Of all the activities going on within the command, the commander
recognizes the focus of effort as the most critical to success. The
focus of effort is directed at that object or function which will cause
the most decisive damage to the enemy. Normally, the main effort
is assigned responsibility for accomplishing the focus of effort. It
then becomes clear to all other units in the command that they must
support the main effort. Like the commander's intent, the focus of
effort becomes a harmonizing force.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Security
Security is achieved by those measures taken to prevent surprise, to
ensure freedom of action, and to deny the enemy information about
friendly forces. Security is essential to the protection of combat
power; however, it does not imply over cautiousness or the avoidance
of calculated risk. Adequate security against surprise requires
a correct estimate of enemy capabilities, sufficient security measures,
effective reconnaissance, and readiness for action. Security
often is enhanced by bold seizure and retention of the initiative and
speed, which denies the enemy the chance to interfere. Every unit is responsible for its own local security, regardless of security measures
implemented by a higher echelon.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Surprise
Surprise is the ability to strike the enemy at a time or place or in a
manner for which he is unprepared. Surprise is a combat multiplier.
He who can achieve it and can protect himself from it gains
leverage. It is not essential that the enemy be taken unaware, but
only that he become aware too late to react effectively. The effect
of surprise is only temporary. To reap the benefits of surprise, the
commander must exploit its initial shock, allowing the enemy no
time to recover. An enemy taken unaware loses confidence in himself
and his leaders, his morale drops, and he is, then, less able to
take effective countermeasures. Surprise delays enemy reactions,
overloads and confuses his C2 systems, and provides initiative and
momentum to the force.
By reducing enemy combat power, surprise enables a force to succeed
with. fewer forces than might otherwise be needed. Achieving
outright surprise is never easy, especially with modern surveillance
and warning capabilities. While always seeking surprise and being
prepared to. exploit it aggressively, the commander must also have a
plan if surprise is lost. However, surprise can still be achieved by
operating contrary to the enemy's expectations. Factors contributing
to surprise include—
• Speed.
• Use of unexpected forces.
• Operating at night/during limited visibility.
• Effective ,and timely intelligence.
• Deception.
• Security.
• Variation in tactics and techniques.
• Use of terrain that appears unfavorable.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Simplicity
Plans should be as simple and direct as the accomplishment of the
mission will permit. Direct, simple plans and clear, concise orders
reduce the chance for misunderstanding and confusion, and they
promote effective execution. Other factors being equal, the simplest
plan is preferred.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________


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PostSubject: Re: Marine Corps Combat Doctrine   Tue Jan 03, 2012 10:35 pm

Cool. Thanks Smile
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PostSubject: Re: Marine Corps Combat Doctrine   Tue Feb 07, 2012 3:33 am

I just came across some good Marine tactical guides. I'll definetely have to share the wealth once I go over them. =D

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